In the article the author describes the situation, when, after the installation of new electronic meters, they will count, in the same apartments, greater power consumption, than older, induction. Explains the reasons for oversized accounting, circuit leads and provides recommendations for remedial and for saving energy.
Electricity consumer complaint: “I live in one of the apartments of an apartment building. Earlier, to account for the consumption of electricity in my apartment, in a power switchboard in staircase scripting induction electric meter CO-2, for many years he counted, winter more than summer less, but most 100 kW / h per month was not. Now "Kyivenergo" replaced it, and installed electronic meters NІK 2102 and he has to 2 times more, and despite the fact, the load in my apartment has not changed ".
Such complaints on the Internet a lot. Let's look at the reasons overvalued electricity metering electronic meters.
New electronic-mechanical counters
Older inductive type electricity meters CO-2, mass and long established in our apartments, considered active power, reliably worked many pods, but it has some drawbacks. Among them, low sensitivity, they take into account the capacity of just above 11…22 W (depending on the accuracy class), Further, they can be easily deceive, ie. stop the metering of electricity, than the "craftsmen" and massively engaged. All egos led to losses energosbyvayuschih organizations, which now become private, and the private owner will not tolerate losses. therefore, on the instructions of energosbyvayuschih organizations, designers have developed new, electronic (электромеханические) electricity meters (SB) devoid of the above disadvantages. The market is saturated with such ES, among them, and often referred to on the Internet electronic-mechanical electricity meter type NІK 2102 (Fig.1), of manufactured in Ukraine and having a lot of modifications. He is fully compliant and sales, namely, said active power, It has high sensitivity, tk. It allows for higher power consumption 2,75 W, (instead of 11…22 W in the SB-2). It incorporated many methods of protection against theft of electricity. Among them, high immunity to external magnetic fields with artificial and external RF, and, depending on the model, a current sensor may be installed (Only in the phase conductor), or two current sensors (in phase and neutral conductor).
Learn how current sensors in your electricity meter NICK 2102 It can be on three criteria.
- The first sign, on the model type, written on the front panel, For example, to "M" pattern NІK 2102-02.M2V number after the letters indicates the number of current sensors, in this case, "2".
- The second sign, the presence of the same panel, LED marked "EARTH" and "reverse" (Fig.1), in electricity with a sensor current of the LED is not. by the way, "REVERSE" LED, then lights up, when "yourselfers" start up current in the reverse direction for the purpose of theft of electricity.
- The third feature, on the front panel of ES is a sign, указывающий, as current sensors in the model, sign – a vertical rod with one or two rings at the ends. one ring – a current sensor, two ringlet – two current sensors.
Energosbyt loves ES NІK 2102 with 2 current sensors and that their mass-free, It sets the power of metal boards in all of our apartment homes.
Where does this love of power sales to new electric meters with 2 current sensors. And the trick, ES that takes into account the power consumption of the sensor readings of the (phase or zero) through which flows a larger current. One side, it is difficult to theft of electricity, but on the other side, allowing electricians and sales, ES properly connected and that deceive consumers, ie. charge them energy bill, which they really do not consume.
Areas of responsibility
before, than to understand all the reasons overvalued electricity metering, You need to know the responsibility zone of the power stations, ie. who is responsible for what.
for power board apartment building (the stairwell) meets the housing office or electrical joint owners of apartment buildings.
Energosbyt answers, of the EC switchboard in an apartment building and its connection wires (to circuit breakers AB), as well as sealing and ES operation.
For wiring apartment, apartment building, from circuit breakers (AB) in the power board, responsible landlord.
In particular the house, all belong to the house owner: power board, electric meter, home wiring and grounding (if there is one), but the seal on the electricity meter belong Energosbyt, and pluck, them after sealing, must not.
so, consider 5 Reasons that a new generation of ES account electricity.
- Electric power sales, I replaced in a cabinet of an apartment building in the old ES electronic with two current sensors
But he plugged it in an irregular pattern, why the EC has a lot more power, than it consumes landlord. This is one of the most frequent causes overvaluation of electricity metering.
browsing the Internet, I was surprised, that nobody even guesses about the scam electricians and sales, and it is used quite often.
Figure. 2 shows two assembly Electric wiring diagrams in power switchboards of our apartment buildings, in Figure 2, a diagram of the insertion of ES, and in Figure 2, b – incorrect.
properly included – it means, that the output of the neutral wire from ES to the apartment must be straight (Figure 2, and), and not in the gap, through the electrical enclosure (2b). When you turn on the right (Figure 2, and), Electric wires in both (phase and zero) the same current flows, ES and correctly calculates electricity.
But often, an electrician, or because of their incompetence, or specially, ES connects to the wrong apartment (2b). ie. Output neutral conductor with ES and its entrance to the apartment is not connected directly, and through the metal housing of the electrical power, and even under a clamping bolt with neighbors (2b). Then, a neutral wire, neighbors in the electrical, It is admixed additional current, circulating in the metal casing of the electrical, EC and will charge you additional power, that you do not consume.
Scheme circulation neutral conductor currents in a metal casing of the electrical changes all the time, tk. It depends on the ratio of current consumption of all the apartments of neighbors in a cabinet. Usually electroboards 3-4 SB, but in Figure 2, for simplicity, the consideration represented only two.
And, neighbors can affect your EC as, like you're at it, naturally, and if they are incorporated in an irregular pattern (Fig. 2, b).
In fairness it should be noted, ES designers with two current sensors, the same NIC 2102, provided on the front panel LED "GROUND" (Fig.1). Its light indicates, that the phase and neutral wire are different currents, this is not normal and you will be charged extra electricity, that you do not consume.
Identify the cause of the "earth" LED luminescence very easy, there are two options.
- The first. check scheme, ie. wire, Electric connection. Neutral conductor with ES, It must be connected directly to the apartment (Figure 2, and), rather than through the electrical enclosure (2b).
- Second. In the power board to disconnect power supply to his apartment (turn off the circuit breaker AB), "Earth" LED, on your ES will go off. Then, the load must be replaced by a portable incandescent 230 AT 100 W, ie. turn it so, as shown in Fig.3. If the "earth" LED lights, it indicates, that the electricity meter is turned on wrong, and blame the electrician has done this.
In the new apartment buildings, new electrical wiring above-described problems with ES, usually, can not be, but in the old Soviet-built homes, they very often.
How to act in the same situation, when you find, that your electricity meter, in the power panel apartment building, LED lights "EARTH". There are three options.
- The first. To write an application addressed to the director and sales (RES) your neighborhood, which in addition to its location and its data, specify, ES that your apartment is lit LED "earth" and that the wiring of your home is OK, Electric power sales and to address this shortcoming. The statement should be written in 2 copies, one left in the waiting room director, and second, with a stamp of "incoming", keep the.
- Second. At the set time, you can come to the reception to the director, but be sure to write a statement, tk. oral conversation, this is empty talk, and to you no one will come.
- Third. Call electricians and sales, pointing to the above-mentioned drawback. This is the easiest option, but the most hopeless, tk. likelihood, that the electrician will come to you, almost no, you will just "football", as it was with the author of this article.
If the electrical power sales, as directed by the Director, yet come to you to address the lack of, make sure you will lie to you, that blame your neighbor, that is connected to your counter. You will hate the neighbor, to consider him as an enemy, and even argue with him, but he is absolutely the innocent and not even know about it. And virtually all of the fault lies with electrical power sales, but he never let it be recognized . But your task, when it appears, to achieve elimination of the lack of.
- Poor insulation wiring in your home or in a private house (cottage)
In consequence of this electric meter has additional electricity, even in the absence of payload. This is another reason for the increased accounting electricity meter electricity, but at the same time Energosbyt, not guilty, tk. wiring apartment (private houses) It belongs to its owner.
Poor insulation in the wiring, both between the wires and the "on the ground", It may be due to her old age, or moisture (water) on wiring, например, you have filled in the neighbors. The same situation can be in the cable, you laid in the ground in the garage, or summer kitchen, or bath in the garden area or a private home, and the cable ground water hit – the worst enemy of isolation.
According to the norms, "Accounting Regulations for Electrical" (PUE) insulation resistance of electrical wiring, must be at least 0,5 MOM. But the ES start to take into account the energy of the leakage current, with much lower insulation resistance values. for example, ES old type CO 2 account for power above 11…22 W, which corresponds to the insulation resistance below 4.4…2,2 k. new, Electronic ES have a high sensitivity, they take into account the capacity of electricity above 2,75 W, ie. if the insulation resistance is less than 17,6 k. When wiring insulation resistance below the above threshold, ES account for electricity "day and night", and no matter, you consume energy or not.
Identify low wiring insulation must specialist, versed in electrical engineering. As known, electronic and mechanical ES, the same nickname 2102, excluding electricity, flashing LEDs. Disconnect in turn wiring portions, Specialist identifies electric cables with low insulation, measured insulation resistance device, and concludes on the need to replace wiring. defective, ie. creepage culprits, can be and Circuit Breakers AB (Figure 2, and), installed in power switchboards, though this is rare, but the technician must check and. According to a survey expert concludes.
If you survey the apartment without wiring, pozhaluetes electricians and sales, on account of a large new electricity ES, they, not to deal with the problem of the essence, standard answer you: "Change wiring, Energosbyt for wiring your apartment does not meet ". The owner of the apartment, received without inspection is a "competent opinion", He spends a lot of money, changing the wiring, as well as the EC believed in 2 times more, and believes, tk. the reason may be quite different.
- The owner of a private house is not properly connected to the power ground shield
This is another reason for overpricing electricity metering.
I'll start with a complaint host garden: "I have a cottage electromechanical counter NIK 2102 Two current sensors, I equipped cottage on the ground and connect it to the power board to the bus neutral wire. A neighbor advised Electrical, protect it from lightning, or emergency at breakage of the neutral wire on poles. Imagine my surprise, when a month the amount of electricity consumed at me has almost 2 fold, what was going on, I do not understand ".
Figure 4, shows a diagram of such a ground connection to the neutral bus in a power panel. Connect the ground wire to the zero after the ES can not be, nowhere, or in a cabinet, any three-prong outlet in the apartment or house. tk. through neutral conductor current sensor ES to proceed an additional (uravnivaющiй) current (in Figure 4, and it is shown by the dotted line with an arrow). And the EC will consist of additional electricity, which the owner of a private house does not consume. The amount of accumulated electricity can be appreciable and depends on the magnitude of the equalizing current. It can be easy to measure Clamp Meter – this requires them to embrace the ground wire.
Uravnivaющie buckles, different sizes, occur in all grounded zero (PEN) wire, all the way it passes from the supply transformer to the consumer (Fig. 5), including ground power boards of private homes (Fig. 4, and, Figure 4, b).
Existence equalizing currents caused by, that on the supply three-phase transformer (10 KB / 380 AT) three-phase winding (400 AT) connected by a "star" and their overall, neutral, grounded.
This 4-wire system power consumers called TN-C (Fig. 5). The magnitude of equalizing currents, the more, less than the grounding resistance and high power, at this time, consume all consumers, connected to the supply transformer, For example 10 KB / 0,4 KB (Fig. 5). true, with equal currents in each of the three mains phases, current in the neutral conductor will be substantially zero, but the exact equality of currents in all phases does not happen.
But, upon the occurrence of accidents, For example, on loss of neutral wire on poles, This current can reach significant values, tens amperes or more, and if the ground connection, made in a cabinet under the scheme Figure 4, and, ie. After HOLIDAYS, it will count a lot of electricity, the consumer is not really consumed.
How did the right thing in this situation,? Here are three options.
- The first. Do not connect ground to neutral bus power panel and will not have problems, and equipped grounding only be used as a third wire in receptacles, as the protective earth. The amount of current in a protective grounding, at a working electrical insulation, It is always zero, this can be seen, clamp Meter.
- Second. If you decide to perform a neighbor's recommendation electrician, or you are forced to do it Energosbyt, then connect the ground wire to the EC, scheme Figure 4b. In such a scheme, additional (uravnivaющiй) current, though it will take place in the grounded neutral conductor, but will go by ES, tk. grounding enabled him to.
- The third option. In a private house to install ES with only one current sensor (in phase conductor), issued and this model - NEC 2102. He will charge electricity only for phase conductor.
Lack circuit shown in Figure 4b – is the lack of stop super-large equalizing currents, arising from emergencies and able to burn the owners of his home patch cable to elektroopore, and, electrometer and power board. Therefore, practitioners electrical grounding is recommended to connect to the neutral conductor of the scheme Fig.6. it, as well as in Figure 4, b, electricity meter installed with two current sensors, but added to the ES paired breaker AB-2, For example, current 32 BUT, which in case of emergency (large equalizing currents) automatically shut off and the phase and zero, and these connecting electrical cable and protects from damage ES.
In applying circuit Fig.6, Energosbyt be sealed with paired machine AB-2, using a special filling box, and when the scheme Figure 4b, – be sealed with the place the ground connection to the housing and branches on the ES, All the ego is to prevent the intentional disconnection of ES, with the aim of stealing power. Scheme, shown in Figure 4b, Figure 6, show, as a simplified version with the compounds in the electrical, For example, they do not show differential machines, which should be installed in power switchboards. The main purpose of these schemes,, показать, ES how to avoid charging of electricity from the equalizing currents.
- Wei appliances apartment (houses): TVs, computers, laptops, microwaves, DVD player, stereos, and pr., permanently incorporated into the electricity grid in the standby mode
Old type SB induction ES-2, We do not take into account the above-mentioned low power standby household appliances, to about 11…22 W.
The new ES is much more sensitive, and consumed all the above-mentioned appliances accounted for by new electric meters. And in the end of the month pick up larger amount of kW·h electricity, for you and you have to pay.
If you want to reduce indications of new ES, de-energize the entire household appliances, ie. completely shut down its. To do this, it is best to have a power strip with a switch. It also significantly increases the service life of consumer electronics and reduce the risk of fire due to its ignition.
The truth is there is one major psychological obstacle – man hard to change old habits, ie. rise from the couch and handed off appliances, easier remote management to translate it from the operating mode to the standby mode and, without getting up from the same couch, to go to bed, electric meter and let it considers.
- Defective ES new type
remind, electricity meters in apartment buildings, It belongs Energosbyt, and in private homes – their owners.
Many people believe, that the reason for charging a large number of new electronic Electric power, is their high accuracy class, this false opinion is shared by some electricians, imposing its customers. In reality, old induction meters had the highest accuracy class , and some of their models,
on this indicator, They were more accurate, than the new electronic ES. for example, EC accuracy class induction was: 0.5; 1.0; 2.0; 2.5, whereas the same is NІK2102 accuracy class only 1.0.
Each of the types of ES, induction, or e-mail has strengths and weaknesses. for example, Electric induction more reliable, and little exposed to lightning, but they can be easily deceived. Electronic ES are more protected against fraud, but weak resistance to lightning. If lightning flickered close, and brought to a high voltage electric lines, or a direct blow to it, the electronic ES often damaged and did not charge or charges very little, but not more than serviceable. constructors, constantly improving ES electronics, including their lightning protection.
Therefore, the rumors, that electronic ES often not serviceable and therefore charge a lot of electricity incorrect. The main reasons for oversized accounting, Electric power set out in paragraphs 1, 2 and 3.
Anyway, if the user of electricity there are doubts about the EC work, he may himself or his check, or contact Energosbyt. If he decided to check, Here are two tips.
- The first. The front panel ES, the same NIK 2102, написано, how many times the LED blinks at one kilowatt / hour of electricity (Fig.1). for example, 6400 (it happens 3200, or 1600). ibid, at the end of digits electricity metering, in the red box, has a wheel, which indicate the numbers on 1/10 kW·no, ie. at 640 pulse number moves to a higher value. But, beside, with the same red wheel, there are risks of hundredths of a kW·no (Figure 7), and if the wheel is moved one risk, it will be 64 pulse. You turn on the load, light bulb filament on 100 W and counts the number of pulses per one risk, if it passed 64 pulse, the audible click from the counter, указывающий, that passed 64 pulse, and ES counted 1/100 kW·no. This should happen in 6 minutes.
- second Council. ES can be loaded in the load 1 kW, notch his testimony and in one hour compared.
But, ES is the most accurate test, It can be performed in a special lab calibration and sales, they can say exactly, Did ES defective and whether it complies, accuracy class declared by the manufacturer. therefore, if the consumer power, there are doubts about the EC work, he can write an application to the Director and sales, and calibration laboratory will check it.
Reference laboratory services for free distribution and sales, ES for private owners – paid.
Installation of new electricity energosbyvayuschimi organizations, It requires new approaches electricity consumers, wishing how to reduce energy consumption, and not to pay for them is not really consumed electricity. All tips given above for this article.
except them, consumers of electricity must be used and energy saving methods. It is necessary to turn off the lights, TVs, computers, etc.. P., when uselessness in their use at a given time. This is especially true for the main electricity guzzlers in the home – elektroboyler.
Author: Nicholas Vlasyuk, g. Kiev
A source: Journal of Electric №1-2 / 2017